Analysis of competitive specialists training in technical and vocational education in Kazakhstan shows that regional development programs of Technical and Vocational Education (TVE) are being developed, advanced training of TVE teachers on the basis of employers, arranging internships enrolled in state-of-the-art enterprises are being solved, issues on systematic analysis of the regional labor market for the formation of ahead commissioning for the training of workers and specialists are discussed.
Information Technologies in Education
In the modern conditions multilevel system of vocational education and the systematic integration of the higher school of Kazakhstan into international educational system require new approaches to the educational process organization, ensuring the quality of vocational education. The current stage of reform of the educational system is featured as follows: the growing role of organizational activity and information technology, the emergence of new philosophy of education; formation of a new image of science; search for new relationships of human civilization and nature; changes in the educational sphere and total globalization; improvement of regulatory documents.
In the context of Kazakhstan’s becoming one of the 50 most competitive countries, focus on purposeful formation of professional competence, cognitive independence, the development of creative abilities of future specialists are causing the need for qualitative changes both in the organization of educational process and in the creation of new conditions for its organization [Boribekov, K.K., 2008, р. 5 / Nazarbayev, 2006, р. 49/ Presidential Decree № 626, 2008/ Innovation Development of Kazakhstan, 2003−2015. р. 26–28].
At present the social order of the society is expressed in the need to create fundamentally new opportunities to maintenance and implementation of the educational process, to educational environment establishment basing on information technologies, aimed at the formation of professional competence that meets modern educational paradigm. Strengthening and modernization of material-technical base and infrastructure of educational institutions has a special place among the strategic directions of development of vocational education.
It is necessary to use new educational technologies, including technologies of “open education”, interactive forms of training, project and other methods stimulating activity of the cognitive process, forming the skills of information analysis and self-education; increasing the role of self-directed learning of students. Information and communication technologies have become a means of self-directed and lifelong learning, the development of personal qualities both of students and teachers. These technologies allow to feedback, provide computer visualization of educational information about real objects and processes, create the possibility of archiving and transfer large amounts of data, real-time access to the database, automate the process of computing, information retrieval activities, results processing. Undoubtedly, computer technologies contribute to the formation of cognitive interests of students.
Extensive infrastructure must enter educational institutions in the global Internet and local information networks. The task of improving the country’s competitiveness in a globalizing world economy requires a solution of the issue of the competitive staff, which means – the adequacy of the national education system to the world development trends in education.
Modern society needs anticipatory pedagogy – a system of intellectual and psychological development, forming stable components of creative thinking style, characterized by the ability to analyze any problems, setting system networks, identifying and eliminating contradictions, finding new solutions and predicting possible options of the scenarios of such solutions. Thus as a result of training in vocational and technical education, we should get a qualified person, independently thinking, ready to constant changes in technologies, welcoming new opportunities for solving more complex intellectual tasks.
In this regard, it is necessary to create a targeted information and educational learning environment (IELE) for Professional Technical and Vocational Education focused on the formation and development of the personality, providing full living in the modern society.
Application of new information and communication technologies in the learning process requires not only the availability of funds, information technology support and development of the educational process, training of teaching, administrative and technical personnel, which are able to use new information technologies effectively in the learning process, but also a special system of training students for learning in the new information-pedagogical conditions.
One of the requirements of the process of informatization is training in the computer environment. Education in the computer environment is not only the process of obtaining, interiorization of new information, but the development of new ways of learning activities. It is intellectual development, learning new ways of thinking, fostering mobility in the environment of information society, the acquisition of cultural values of the information society. If in the recent past the education was focused at the development of logical and algorithmic thinking of pupils, now the limitations of this task became apparent: the computer should be a tool for the student in the development of figurative, verbal, intuitive, and other of his mental activity [Korotkov, A.M., 2002, р. 103 / Malyshev, Y.A., 1997, р. 39].
The content of the training in the computer environment are ways of learning activities, intersubjective interaction and self-realization in a computer environment, the idea of an information picture of the world, the role and place of a human in this world, and the computer is a tool of intellectual activity, a means of self-learning. Education in the computer environment differs from traditional methods by not only methods of getting knowledge but also by forms, methods, type of management and organization.
New approaches to learning require new methods of organization of educational process, modern information and educational environments, new educational technologies to increase the intensity and effectiveness of the learning process, creating conditions and individual and collective training activities (Rubtsov, V.V.).
If computer environment is viewed not as an end in itself, but as a component of a holistic education system, it opens up an opportunity of variability, facilitates an access to information, makes it possible to organize a new interaction between students and teachers, contributes to the development of cognitive independence. The versatility of the computer as a means of supporting the activity approach to learning in all its parts, stimulates the activity of students, enhancing their intellectual level. Analysis of learning in the computer environment from the standpoint of the theory of stage formation of mental actions (Galperin, P.Y., Talyzina, N.F.) revealed its specific features. In traditional teaching a primary source of information, during the formation of a rough basis of action, is a teacher, but an additional is a tutorial, book. When training in a computer environment the functions of the presentation of information is carried out by a computer, which is not capable of full communion: the feedback is implemented either formally or in unusual for a student distant form. Action elements are the operations performed in a mental or externally, with or without a computer [Abramov, M.G., 2000 / Blumenau, D.I., 1989, 36 р.,/ Korotkov, A.M., 2002, р. 103 / Kurnosov, I.N., 1997].
In a common mode of action, the result of solving the learning task, found by students is displayed in a final verbal formulation of the found patterns (V.V Davydov). When working in a computer environment that conclusion, as a rule, is not made, a found way of solving is reserved in consciousness only as an idea, often clothed in a verbal form, but the information in this form, as shown by our study, is stored in memory not for long. This feature of the knowledge gained in the computer environment, is noted by other researchers too.
The effectiveness of teaching in a computer environment is provided by the following specific actions: a methodological level (mental actions with abstract concepts, requiring the ability to analyze information, to highlight substantial, to build an information model, to synthesize an image (a holistic, systematic picture of the general properties, the interconnection of objects or events, the laws of their development), to build a hierarchy structure of objectives, to project and coordinate algorithms of stages of problem solving on the basis of feedback, to perform the learning activities using a computer as a tool of cognitive process, to summarize and transfer the folded structure from one task to another, to analyze and critically evaluate the results), subject-meaningful level (mental activities with virtual objects and actions with real objects, selection, transfer, merger, the definition of signs of generality, the search of the missing information, the creation of special conditions for observation), service level (actions for computer systems management).
Analysis of the specificity of research training in the computer environment allowed identifying the main types of education in the computing environment: gnostic (cognitive), self-developmental and communicative in their unity and diversity of forms. The gnostic (cognitive) activity is focused on academic courses (the connection between “a subject – an academic course” realized), the communication activity is oriented on the relationship between people (“a student-a teacher-students-creators of electronic educational products” connection is implemented), the self-development activity is primarily focused on the formation of the attitude to a self as a person, using the tools and resources of a computer environment, participating in information processes. The result of the gnostic (cognitive) activity is knowledge and skills, outlook, awareness of the role I in information processes, the result of self-development activity – self-realization in the computer environment, communication – social and personal experience of communication and cooperation [Abramov, M.G., 2000/ Blumenau, D.I., 1989, 36 р.,/ Kurnosov, I.N., 1997].
In the structure of the gnostic (cognitive) activity in the analysis of a model of learning activity in a computer environment, we highlight two of its components – the subject-learning activity in the computer environment as an organized cooperation in the local school space between subjects of the educational process with an academic course and an independent cognitive activity in a computer environment that is, at its core, complement and extension of subject-learning activity in its independent self-regulation (Izvozchikov, V.A., Robert, I.V.).
Basing on the above proposed classification of learning activities in a computer environment, we can identify the main types of a subject-learning activity in the computer environment – theoretic methodological activity (disobjectification of knowledge, the selection of a generalized, abstracted information, the formation of a scientific picture of the world, the construction of theoretical concepts available at the student level, the transfer of theoretical knowledge to solve practical problems), information and meaningful activities (formation of an integrated system of a student perceptions about the properties of the real world on the basis of analysis of the links between the phenomena of the nature and relationships between phenomena of different nature, different levels) and organizational-management activity (the provision of the interaction between subjects of didactic system, the effectiveness of their actions with the object of knowledge – an academic course).
Our research of students` self-development during training in the computer environment showed that this continuous process involves several types of activities with a common goal – self-determination, self-affirmation, self-realization in the computer environment. Self-determination in the didactic system is a process having the results of identification, self-awareness, self-understanding. Isolation himself from the general environment – an identification during training in the computer environment, the formation of the internal image of the computer and the comprehension of Ego is the first step to self-affirmation. Self-awareness is perception of self of an integral part, the active element of didactic system when the state of uncertainty is replaced by the self-awareness of a human, being able to manage a complex technology. Self-understanding is the acquisition of emotion-activity relationships while learning in a computer environment, a conscious step in the formation of a subject position, understanding of the meaning of his/her activity, his role and importance in the system management [Ibraeva, K.J., 2012, р. 36/ Ibraeva, K.J., 2012, р. 151/ Rakitov, A.I., 1989, 130 р.].
We found a specificity of self-affirmation as one of the learning activity in a computer environment. This activity has several stages: the affirmation of himself in the position of a user (acquisition of management means of a computer environment), the affirmation of himself in the position of a researcher (mastery of methods of teaching and research activities) and the affirmation of himself in the position of a human, capable to create, to independent productive activity in the computer medium. The result of self-affirmation is an ability to an autonomous and collective activity.
Self-realization is the most complex activity in which such personal growths are formed as the ability to target selection, project ways to achieve it, to the organization of activities in the computer environment. Self-realization in the computer environment is manifested as self-actualization, self-regulation and self-presentation. Self-actualization refers to the mobilization of the earlier gained experience as turning himself in the didactic system. Self-regulation is understood as the ability to control his own activities in the computer environment at all stages of education, starting with setting the goals to obtaining and presentation of products of intellectual activity.
Self-presentation, which is understood as external representation of its position by means of multimedia and telecommunications, the public presentation of the product of intellectual activity, corresponds to a high level of subjectivity. Drawing on studies of communicative activities in the computer environment (Beshenkov, S.A., Kuznetsov, A.A., Polat, E.S.), we identified its specific structure and dynamics of the elements development: communication of a student with a teacher, other students, indirect communication with the creators of electronic educational products, communication with people outside of the didactic system.
The main leading positions in the proposed concept of training students for studies in the computer environment are as follows:
● The principle of the system and the conceptual integrity – understanding of the preparation as a process in a complex, open, dynamic didactic system, which involves an appeal to form a multi-level model, reflecting the links between didactic and methodological systems;
● The principle of structuring goals – understanding of the need to separate the general didactic task into a series of more observable ones, when considering the dynamic over time, taking into account the evolution of the internal motives of subjects;
● The principle of gradual formation of readiness – understanding the continuity and nonlinearity training of students for studies in the computer environment and, as a consequence, the idea of the gradual nature of such training as a disciple’s achievement of his subjectivity, development of aspirations for an independent productive activity in the computer environment;
● The principle of a red thread – a multi-disciplinary approach to teaching in the computer environment – a requirement of the deployment of interdisciplinary cooperation in teaching in a computer environment;
● The principle of compliance with the learning activities, teaching methods and means of computer environment to the goals of teaching and content of the course – focus of study activities on set didactic purposes, selection of means in accordance with the needs of the educational process.
A conceptual model of formation of the readiness of students to learn in a computer environment takes into account the principles of construction of the didactic environment itself, in particular the principle of appropriateness of computing appliances: computers in education should only be used in situations where they provide knowledge which impossible or difficult enough to get at non-computer technologies.
Orientation to the provision of conditions for training, upbringing, personality development reflects the principle of closest approach to the needs, opportunities, peculiarities of a human, the consequence of which is the requirement to create didactic computer environment and use of teaching methods, differentiated by age groups and subject areas targeting schoolchildren, and to create a customized environment, accommodate the needs of a student as much as possible, and in the design of such environment, where a student himself is to take an active part [Abramov, M.G., 2000 /Blumenau, D.I., 1989, 36 р,/ 6 Korotkov, A.M., 2002, р. 103 / Kurnosov, I.N ., 1997, р. 4].
Considering the synergy effect, which is inherent to IELE and TVE the following requirements at the level of a whole object can be highlighted:
● Focus on the formation of professional competence and personal development of students;
● The presence of a common database of information resources for educational and professional goals;
● Effective formation of educated students;
● The possibility of successful information interaction in the face of uncertainty;
● Targeted information-teacher interaction in order to achieve as a socially significant results the formation of professional competence and education of students.
Drawing on previously developed understanding of information and educational learning environment (IELE) of specialists technical and vocational education, its structure and identified list of requirements to it we shall describe the conditions of its construction:
1) Organizational and methodological component:
● The adequacy to the state educational standards, sample programs and other normative documents;
● Accounting professional orientation of IELE content;
● Implementation of a multi-level interchangeable content and its phased deployment;
● Theme duplication of content to provide for trainees the opportunity to select;
● Ensuring the implementation of a personal orientation, taking into account specific micro-society;
● Providing opportunities for self-cognition and reflection;
● Support of independent cognitive activity;
● Public access of information and teaching materials;
● The distribution of content on the Internet, the presence of “mirrors” (duplicate sites and portals);
● The possibility of realization of the author approaches to the provision of information;
● The unity of the requirements for the presentation of educational content and structure;
2) Educational (teaching) component:
● Developing and adding copyright educational methods and technologies;
● Availability of recommendations on the organization and implementation of independent cognitive activity;
● Availability of guidelines for the implementation of a person-centered approach to the IELE;
● The ability to monitor the educational process and diagnose its effectiveness;
● Openness and transparency of educational outcomes;
● Consideration of personal capabilities and features of subjects of the educational process;
● Providing mechanisms for the implementation of personalization and extension of cognitive capabilities, shown by the students;
3) The technical component:
● Availability of a server, enjoying appropriate power;
● Wide access to IELE at educational institutions and subjects of educational process;
4) Software tools:
● Development of software that provides diagnostics of needs, abilities and challenges of students and their families;
● Licensed software;
● User-friendly interface;
● Access levels;
● Unambiguous identification;
● Monitoring of educational trajectories and results of students;
● The possibility of constructing a “personal account” for the subjects of the educational process;
● Resistance to virus attacks and infection;
● Resource stocks;
● Ease of management and use;
● Protection from unauthorized access;
5) Informational component:
● The linkages with friendly resources;
● The clear router of information flows;
● A possibility of information visualization, computer modeling of phenomena;
● A possibility of information retrieval activities;
● Parallel information flows;
● Distribution of information resources;
● The presence of feedback;
● The unity of the ways of access to information resources and information interaction;
● Standardization of information flows;
● Design of network technologies (forum, chat, wiki, e-mail) for the implementation of interactivity between subjects of the educational process;
● A possibility of expediting the adoption and the adequacy of management decisions;
6) The personal component:
● Availability of qualified teaching staff, capable of operating in IELE;
● Socially responsible students with sufficient level of development of common cultural, information and professional competencies.
Most researchers of the problems of informatization believe that the immediate goal of informatization is to create information and educational environment (emphasis added by the authors), including a system of hardware, software, experts and users, document management, databases, implementing information processes (Shemakin, Y.I., Gomanov, A.A., etc.) [Blumenau, D.I., 1989/ Rakitov, A.I., 1989, р. 130].
Several authors have noted that information and information-educational environment have the feature of not only managed development, but also self-development (Klimontovich, Y.L., Dobronravov, I.S., Tsikin, V.A., etc.) [Abramov, M.G., 2000, 127 р. / Blumenau, D.I., 1989, 36 р.].
The basic principles underlying in the base of the development and self-development of information environments, in their opinion, are as follows:
● The open nature of the information and educational system;
● The process of organization, self-organization and development involves coordination of all participants of the information process;
● Multivariate nature of the development of the information environment.
Building of information-educational environment provides the bas is for the formation and development of a new branch of didactics – electronic didactics, the main problems in the study of which are:
● Partitioning of an academic course and stages of learning that it is advisable to submit in a electronic form;
● Development of lectures and practical part of the tutorial, taking into account the functional purpose;
● Project, creation and evaluation of the effectiveness of the electronic system;
● An overall assessment of learning outcomes.
Priorities for the development of information and educational environment are as follows:
● To analyze the state of didactics and to form the main directions of development of the theory and practice of teaching in the new (virtual) learning environment;
● To work out conceptual and terminological apparatus of IELE didactics;
● To optimize the composition of Educational-methodical complexes (EMC);
● To develop a rational structure representations of educational content, performed in various media;
● To develop techniques for the preparation of training materials for the IELE, list of the main requirements, imposed to teachers includes:
● The ability to quickly acquire and work with the network educational and communication technologies, integrated by the means of the development of network courses and network communications, multimedia technology;
● To have a certain psychological stability and work with virtual students when the teacher does not see their students during the whole training;
● Work in conditions of distributed time;
● To prepare in advance all the necessary components of the course, develop a clear calendar of events during the course and all kinds of report statements;
● To be prepared for a very active exchange of information with students; without active dialogue and network communications.
Formation of information and educational environment, covering all areas of the institution, creates additional conditions for the comprehensive analysis of indicators of the educational process, allows creating a holistic view of the general state of the system of general vocational education, of qualitative and quantitative changes in it. Information and educational environment should be built as an integrated multi-component system, the components of which correspond to the educational, scientific research, measurement, monitoring and evaluation of learning outcomes, of the management of the college. Such environment should have a maximum variability, providing differentiation.
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Ibraeva Kulyan Zhagiparovna
(Ибраева Кулян Жагипаровна)
Doctor of Pedagogical Sciences, Professor
Saken Seifullin Kazakh Agrotechnical University
Academician of Kazakhstan Academy of Pedagogical Sciences
Republic of Kazakhstan
010011, Astana, Zhenis avenue, 62